From the Darkness into the Light; Anne Morgan in the Modern Age.

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Anne Morgan delivering food to families of the village where her chateau was located. The village had been obliterated by the War (WWI) and Miss Morgan made it her business to recruit volunteers to help the villagers put their homes and lives back together. ©American Friends of Blérancourt.

Monday, September 30, 2019.  “Thirty days have September, April, June and November … etc.” Remember that one?  

We learned that when it was required that you remember the basics. This year’s 30th day – and the day before – topped off a beautiful weekend weather-wise in New York. Bright, sunny warm with the temperature reach up into the 80s but unlike summer, not uncomfortable. Then falling to the 60s in the evening. 

In my neighborhood where there are a lot of young families as well as older people, with the East River a block away and Carl Schurz Park in the center, it was a classic Sunday in New York. People out, getting exercise, pushing their prams, walking their dogs, carrying the papers and a foldup sunset.  Making the most of Mother Nature.

Anne Morgan in her CARD (Comité Américain pour les Régions Dévastées) uniform. © American Friends of Blérancourt.

Today’s Diary came to mind a couple of months ago. I was thinking about all the liberation movements in my lifetime and their relationship to the state of our currently very fluid society and culture. Nothing as heavy as it sounds, but the kind of thought that passes through this brain out of curiosity and comprehension. The world is too much with us… as Wordsworth wrote; and as it is.

Coincidentally around the same time I was reading about Anne Morgan, a daughter of J. Pierpont Morgan who was born in the last quarter of the 19th century and was one of the founding members of the Colony Club, a very highly regarded women’s organization here in New York. Having a father who had (and founded) his clubs, so why shouldn’t women have a club they can go to and relax. This was more than a century ago. The club was founded in the first decade of the 20th and remains highly regarded by its members today.

Her “aggressive” behavior was shocking to many at that time. Women had no rights nor any decisions to make. Today, the woman’s role has changed. I see that it started with people like her in youth. She was indeed “liberated.” And she made a difference in her era, which like ours was being transported by the technology that began in the last quarter of the 19th century. She had a lot of her father in her. He admired her “gumption” but not always her ideas. But he was a sane man, despite his great financial power.

I first published this review of her life in Quest magazine in their August issue.

She was born on July 25, 1873,
three years before Mark Twain published his satirical novel “The Gilded Age” which became the name of that era in American history after the Civil War when America was in rapid industrial expansion, and the amassing of great fortunes. It was the very beginning of the Modern Age.

Anne Morgan, the youngest daughter of J. Pierpont.

The youngest of the three daughters of J. Pierpont Morgan and his wife Frances, Anne grew up at her family’s country estate, “Cragston” in Highland Falls, near West Point. 

Her father was at the center of this emerging transformation of the country. As the American financier and banker of the new times, he dominated corporate finance in the world, playing a central role in American industrial consolidation from the late 19th and early 20th century. 

Stellar when it came to choosing his deals and investments for clients and his own interests, Morgan had natural foresight. He was an original funder of Thomas Edison (as well as Nichola Tesla) and the development of the electric light. 

The Morgan mansion on Madison Avenue and 35th Street was the first house in America to be entirely electrified (although it wasn’t a resounding success when first installed). Some of Mr. Morgan’s mergers and creations were General Electric, Westinghouse, U.S. Steel, Standard Oil, International Harvester, AT&T and several major railroad companies including the New York Central, the Pennsylvania, the Northern Pacific, the New York, New Haven & Hartford.

Once described as a “shy girl who did not like society,” Anne made the debutante rounds but remained intensely private. She had come into the world at about the time that the marriage of her mother and father had begun to unravel. This was an era when divorce was rare and women’s rights were not supported or even considered. 

The Morgans lived together under the same roof, and he traveled frequently on business on his yacht Corsair, and kept a mansion at 14 Prince’s Gate in London.

The Corsair, built for J.P. Morgan in the 19th century.

Growing up, although a shy girl, in the company of her own family, she was more spirited and rebellious than her siblings. When she was old enough, however, she succeeded her sisters — who had married and started their own families — as her father’s “chaperone” on his voyages — stateside or to Europe.  

Fanny Morgan rarely made these trips, as her husband wished. The wide gap between husband and wife was the ongoing household drama for their children. In the 19th century, choice for a woman was not apparent or even imaginable. It was not uncommon for a wealthy man to spend time away from home in the company of his mistresses. Pierpont Morgan, like many of his social peers, like his father before him — like his friend, Queen Victoria’s son and heir, Albert (Bertie), the Prince of Wales — conducted semi-public affairs throughout his life. This was well known in the society of the day, if not openly spoken about.  

Privately, Pierpont Morgan preferred the company of a woman who was in the Social Register, and with an MRS. before her name, and with a husband in the background. Morgan was a man who especially liked the company of women. And he was generous with his amours, taking care that they were financially comfortable and self-respecting.

The man himself commanding a photographer NOT to take his photo.

These relationships were not secretive. He spent much of his time in travels, with one or another in the company of his and her friends —  as well as the daughter who was the official “chaperone” or beard. 

The last of Morgan’s mistresses was a long term relationship with Mrs. Adelaide Douglas for whom he hired Horace Trumbauer to design and build a house for her on Park Avenue between 37 and 38th Streets. Trumbauer — who designed the mansion on the corner of 78th Street and Fifth Avenue for James B. Duke — created a six story, 25 foot wide mansion of limestone and granite in the style of 18th Century France.

The original J.P. Morgan residence on the northeast corner of 36th and Madison. It was later razed after his death and the museum was built on the land.

The house was also a just a block away and around the corner from the Morgan mansion on Madison Avenue, easily accessible on foot for her paramour. It was completed with a back entrance for Morgan’s private use.  The house today, more than a century later, is still occupied, now the Guatemalan Mission to the UN.

When daughter Anne was in her 20s, with her sisters now married, she became her father’s official chaperone in his travels in the company of his mistresses and friends. She was well aware of what was going on. She kept his confidence to keep the peace in the family. As it happened she also liked Mrs. Douglas and even sometimes lunched with her in the city.

The house on Park Avenue between 37th and 38th Street that Pierpont Morgan hired Horace Trunbauer to design and build for his mistress Mrs. Adelaide Douglas, around the corner from his house on Madison Avenue and 36th Street, and where she lived for the rest of her life.

Women in those days did not wear makeup, including lipstick. Anne was stocky (170 pounds at 5’8”) and unconcerned with beautifying herself for others. She was given an annual allowance of $20,000 (which would have the purchasing power of $550,000 today). When she wasn’t on one of her father’s voyages, she was looking after her disappointed and unhappy mother.

During the winter of 1902 when Anne was 29, and her father was not traveling, she and friends, Helen Barney, Helen Hastings and Daisy Harriman decided to create a women’s club. The idea was to provide women with the same kind of facilities and social resources that their fathers, husbands and brothers had with the Metropolitan, the Racquet and Tennis, and the Union Clubs. They called it the Colony Club.

Anne Morgan and Mrs. William K. Vanderbilt.
Anne Morgan, center, with Marie Dressler and Jules Bache.

This was a “first” for women, and many of the men in their lives and in the world objected to it. “A woman’s place is in the home.” Pierpont Morgan, however, whatever his objections, supported it, and became a member of the men’s advisory. 

The women, however, were determined to show the world what women could do on their own. They enrolled 500 members and raised the funds, and bought land on the corner of 30th Street and Madison Avenue, just five blocks south of the Morgan residence. 

Bessie Marbury and Elsie de Wolfe, 1923.

They hired Stanford White to design and build the clubhouse. White hired Elsie DeWolfe to decorate the interior. Elsie was considered a “novice” interior decorator at the time. This was her first real assignment. She came into a world where “interior design” was done by the architects. Her success led to many other assignments among members of Society. She became the first female interior designer in that world.

A New York City native, daughter of a doctor who died leaving his family financially destitute, Elsie went to work in her 20s as an actress to support her family. While she was not “star” successful, in 1887, when she was 26, she met Bessie Marbury, a literary agent and theatrical producer. They struck up a personal relationship, and in 1892, they moved into a townhouse – still standing — on the corner of 122 East 17th Street and Irving Place.

While Elsie was petite and slender, Bessie Marbury was heavyset and plain. One man described her looks as “the only thing missing was some chewing tobacco…” Elsie was by then a well known actress, although she was also regarded as not very talented. Marbury, on the other hand, also a New York native, was brilliantly successful in her business as an international literary agent and theatrical producer. Among her clients were George Bernard Shaw, Oscar Wilde, J. M. Barrie and the entire French society of Dramatic Authors including Pinero, Molnar and Sardou. She was an early promoter of African American writers of the Harlem Renaissance. She also produced Cole Porter’s first Broadway show, “See America First as well as shows for Jerome Kern, and was instrumental in the creation of the “Book Musical” which remains to this day.

Presumably the two women became lovers, and were referred to as “The Bachelors” by their male friends. But what they clearly shared besides devotion to each other, was serious ambition. And at the house on Irving Place, they began hosting a salon, or what today would be called cocktail receptions.

The streetcleaner is sweeping in front of the northwest corner of East 17th Street and Irving Place and the two-story house of Bessie Marbury and Elsie de Wolfe, around the time they lived and entertained there from the 1890s through the first decade of 1900.
The house still standing today. If the walls could speak!!

The guest list was unique for New York in the Gilded Age. It was outside the fashion of Society — actors, writers, prominent businessmen and tycoons. The list crossed the strict social boundaries of the time and were enthusiastically attended by the men – without their wives – such as Stanford White, Jack Astor and Willie K. Vanderbilt. The author Henry Adams reporting to a friend said: “I went to the Marbury salon and found myself in a mad cyclone of people…struck blind by the brilliancy of their world.” Even the Mrs. Astor, impressed by their success, couldn’t compete with their style; they were the Now in a happening world.

It was Anne Morgan’s meeting Bessie and Elsie in creating the Colony Club that changed the life of the 29-year-old woman forever. Bessie was particularly taken by the young woman who was seventeen years her junior. 

Did they have an affair? It hardly matters. Bessie opened up to a world that Anne had never known nor would have met. It was the big world of creative people, social activists and female independence. 

Suddenly Anne Morgan was moving out of her parents’ world and into her own. Bessie wrote to a friend: “There was something pathetic about this splendid girl, full of vitality and eagerness, yet who, as the youngest of a large family had never been allowed to grow up.” 

Bessie would change that. Within a year, Anne was in love. With Bessie. She was spending most of her time at Irving Place instead of Madison Avenue. In 2004 she sailed to Paris with her father where she told him over dinner one night that she couldn’t be his “chaperone” anymore. However he took that, as a possessive parent, he was not pleased. 

Afterwards his daughter went off with Bessie and Elsie to visit Villa Trianon a long abandoned villa in Versailles that Bessie had bought for Elsie. By 1906, Anne had contributed to the restoration of the villa as well as adding another wing, and spending more time there. They became known as the “Versailles Triumvirate.”

The reception room of the wing that Anne Morgan added to the Villa Trianon. Illustration by William Bruce Ellis Ranken

She was now an independent woman, in her early 30s, meeting her new world through Bessie and Elsie. Marcel Proust came to lunch at the villa. She visited Jane Addams at Hull House in Chicago. She flew with Elsie and Wilbur Wright in the Wright Brothers’ “flying machine.” In 1909 she joined a group of women known as “the mink brigade” to support the International Ladies Garment Workers Union strike.

J. Pierpont Morgan died at age 75 in 1913. He left an estate of approximately $100 million (or $2.5 billion in today’s currency). To each of his daughters, he left $3 million (approximately $72 million in today’s dollars) with many bequests beginning with his wife Fanny (who died 11 years later in 1924). 

He had not been estranged from Anne or any of his children, although he loathed Bessie Marbury and made sure to prevent her from being the first woman to receive the Legion d’Honneur from the French government (which she greatly deserved). She had taken his daughter away from him.

Anne Morgan with first American volunteers in front of the barracks of the Château de Blérancourt.
The estate of Blérancourt was transformed into a museum and inaugurated in 1930, and stands today as the Franco-American Museum.

Like her father, Anne Morgan made a prominent place for herself in the world. From 1917 to 1921, she took up residence 75 miles north of Paris at Chateau de Blerancourt, entrusted to her by the French Army, along with 350 American women — all volunteers – to help the war-ravaged civilian population in Picardy in northeastern France. 

After the War she purchased the chateau and restored a section to open a museum of French –American cooperation. Along with Ann Murray Dike, Morgan founded the American Committee for Devastated France. The group restored homes, shops, churches, and monuments devastated by the war. They built barracks for the homeless; provided seed and livestock; established dispensaries, clinics, rest houses, and traveling canteens for soldiers; and provided training for the disabled, along with schools, libraries, camps.

Anne Morgan and Anne Murray Dike, ca. 1915

Around 1920 at the suggestion of Bessie Marbury and Elsie DeWolfe, Anne Morgan and Anne Harriman Vanderbilt built townhouses all attached to each other, designed by Mott B. Schmidt, and all still standing a century later. Mrs. Vanderbilt’s house is on the northeast corner of Sutton Place between 57th and 58th Street, facing 57th Street at the river. Next to her is Anne Morgan’s house, now the official residence of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Next to her is the Marbury-DeWolfe house. All of the houses on that block overlook a lawn and the East River. It was often rumored that there was an underground tunnel that connected all three houses.

The Four Friends built houses together on the northeast corner of East 57th Street. Behind the houses is a small park overlooking the East River and Queens. This house was built for Anne Vanderbilt, the last wife of Willie K. To the left, on York Avenue as it was then called, is Anne Morgan’s which today is the official residence of the Secretary General of the UN. And the narrow house to the right of the Morgan house, belonged to Elsie and Bessie. They instantly made the area — which hitherto had been a working neighborhood with slaughterhouses. It was renamed Sutton Place, and so it remains.
Anne Morgan’s Sutton Place living room.
Sutton Place library.

Anne Morgan also had an estate in Mount Kisco. Tobie Roosevelt (Mrs. Franklin D., Jr.) as a child lived nearby, and her mother was a friend of Miss Morgan. Tobie used to see her occasionally when Miss Morgan would take a walk on her property. What fascinated the very young Tobie was that Miss Morgan (who was very old to the child’s eyes) wore bloomers, long out of style, underneath her long skirt.   

Anne Morgan died on January 29, 1952, six months before her 79th birthday.  She had made the most of her life, and much in service to others. Her father was the kind of man who would have been proud of his daughter.

Anne Morgan at home.

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